A Harvard scientist is challenging long-held scientific views about the geochemical makeup of the Earth’s mantle, and whether the massive collision that formed the moon affected the chemical composition of the planet close to its core.In a paper published this month in Nature, Associate Professor of Geochemistry Sujoy Mukhopadhyay presents evidence that the Earth’s deep mantle incorporated gas found in the solar nebula in the first few millions of years of the solar system’s formation. The upper mantle — the layer closest to the crust — was formed later, from material found farther away from the sun. As a result of that separate formation, the two mantle layers — the upper and deep mantle — have fundamentally different chemical makeups.“The fact that we see gas from the solar nebula in the deep mantle suggests that it was captured by a growing Earth and dissolved into a magma ocean when the planet was largely molten,” Mukhopadhyay said. “Our evidence suggests that chemical layering in the mantle was never subsequently destroyed, an idea which runs counter to views of mixing in the mantle over the intervening 4.45 billion years.”Though researchers have long understood that the mantle consists of two separate layers, studying the geochemical differences between them has remained challenging, because rocks that move from the deep mantle to the surface are contaminated as they move through the upper mantle and by gases in the atmosphere.To get around that problem, Mukhopadhyay turned to an unusual technique.Just as climate scientists study the ancient atmosphere by examining air bubbles trapped in ice, Mukhopadhyay studied bubbles of gas trapped in volcanic rock that originated from the deep mantle. Importantly, he said, the rock samples were collected from a site in Iceland where the rock erupted beneath a glacier, which helped to trap more gas in the rocks and protected the samples from air contamination.Mukhopadhyay crushed the samples in a vacuum chamber to release the gas bubbles trapped inside the rock, then used the latest generation of mass spectrometer to analyze trace amount of gases released.Isotopes of neon found in the rock suggest that the deep mantle consists of material collected from the solar nebula in the region where the Earth grew, while gases in the upper mantle, by contrast, come from meteorites that formed farther away. Since the inner part of the solar nebula was dry, the initial stages of Earth’s formation were drier than the later stages.Mukhopadhyay’s research also challenges earlier notions about the massive impact that formed the moon.For decades, researchers have maintained that the moon was likely the result of a collision between the young Earth and a Mars-size protoplanet. The impact also produced a “mixing” effect that eliminated chemistry differences between mantle layers, scientists believed.Mukhopadhyay’s findings, however, turned up trace amounts of a xenon isotope produced by the radioactive decay of an element found only in the first 100 million years of the solar system’s life span. That such a chemical signature was detected, he said, shows that the deep mantle’s chemical makeup survived over billions of years.“Since the chemical differences that the Earth inherited as it grew are still preserved in the present day mantle, the moon-forming impact did not mix the earth well, and the chemical signature of the ancient deep mantle survived the giant impact,” Mukhopadhyay said. “While this does not invalidate the impact hypothesis, it suggests some aspects of the giant impact hypothesis will have to be re-evaluated.”Ultimately, Mukhopadhyay said, his research offers a new view on geologic processes, without which, life would likely not exist.“Plate tectonics is what makes the Earth unique and different from the inhospitable worlds of Mars and Venus,” Mukhopadhyay said. “Many details about plate tectonic processes, however, remain obscure. This is where the importance of the new measurements from Iceland comes in. This research tells us about mixing rates in the mantle and the exchange of heat, which determines how rapidly the Earth is cooling. It also sheds light on how much mass is exchanged between the shallow and deep mantle and the rates at which the mantle has been losing gases since the Earth formed. In essence, we are learning more about how plate tectonics actually operated through deep time.”
The Great Greenbrier River Race triathlon (Run, Canoe, Bike), April 26 2014Held the last Saturday in April each year, on the Greenbrier River Trail near Marlinton, West Va., this triathlon consists of Running, Canoeing and Bicycling.Find more information on this family friendly event here or click straight through to the registration page pdf here. Registration form must be postmarked by April 4 so get in now!The race includes: a three mile run, a four mile canoe ride down the Greenbrier River, and a ten mile bike ride back into Marlinton.Start Time: 11:00 a.m.Race Size: limited to 500Race Contact: Brenda CochranEmail: firstname.lastname@example.orgPhone: 304-456-3091
On April 9, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) announced the designation of Honduran national Jose Miguel Handal Perez (a.k.a. “Chepe Handal”), as a Specially Designated Narcotics Trafficker (SDNT) pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act. Handal’s wife, Ena Elizabeth Hernandez Amaya; his father, Jose Miguel Handal Larach; and several of Handal’s companies located in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were also designated SDNTs on the same date. The companies include Corporación Handal, which is comprised of various business ventures including a general merchandise and auto parts store; Supertiendas & Autopartes Handal; JM Troya, a motorcycle brand; and Cleopatra’s, a clothing store. The designation under the Kingpin Act generally prohibit U.S. persons from conducting financial or commercial transactions with the individuals involved, and also freeze any assets they may have under U.S. jurisdiction. Chepe Handal is the head of a Honduran-based drug trafficking organization (DTO) responsible for the coordination and distribution of multi-ton shipments of cocaine from Colombian supply sources into Honduras. The supplies are distributed to Mexican DTOs, including the Sinaloa and Los Zetas cartels, led by Joaquin “Chapo” Guzman Loera and Miguel Trevino Morales, respectively. Handal invests in and coordinates the receipt of drug-laden aircraft departing from Apure, Venezuela into Honduras via clandestine airstrips. He also facilities the movement of these drug shipments out of Honduras by land to Guatemala, where members of the Los Zetas and Sinaloa cartels take possession. “Chepe Handal plays a critical role in the transportation and distribution of drug shipments between South America and the Sinaloa and Los Zetas cartels,” said OFAC Director Adam J. Szubin. “Today’s action underscores OFAC’s commitment to targeting and disrupting key facilitators of the drug trade wherever they may be.” On March 3, 2011, the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of Florida indicted Chepe Handal with one count of conspiracy to distribute cocaine with knowledge that it will be unlawfully imported into the United States. OFAC has identified 97 drug kingpins and designated more than 1,200 businesses and individuals. Penalties for violations of the Kingpin Act range from civil penalties of up to $1.075 million per violation to more severe criminal penalties. Criminal penalties for corporate officers may include up to 30 years in prison and fines of up to $5 million. Criminal fines for corporations may reach $10 million. Other individuals face up to 10 years in prison and fines for criminal violation of the Kingpin Act pursuant to Title 18 of the United States Code. By Dialogo April 11, 2013
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“We believe the traditional way adopted by the old politicians is not useful and quite pointless during this era,” said Sunny Cheung, 24, who turned down a chance to study for a master’s degree at Johns Hopkins University to “resist the evil regime”.Clad in black with white sneakers while handing out flyers outside a metro station, Cheung said his generation had been energized by anti-government protests and embraced “resistance”.The localists – a term for those who do not see themselves as Chinese and focus on saving the former British colony’s freedoms – tend to adopt a more assertive stance than traditional democrats.Given anyone who backs independence for Hong Kong could fall foul of the new security law and face life in prison, it was not immediately clear which candidates, if any, supported that stance. Some say privately the law has limited what they say in public. Topics : On Tuesday, China’s Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office condemned the weekend poll as “illegal manipulation” and a “blatant challenge” to the security law.Former democracy lawmaker Au Nok-hin stepped down on Wednesday as organizer of the election due to Beijing’s remarks, although he reiterated the poll was legal.Of the more than 610,000 people – or about 8% of the city’s population – who participated in the poll – up to three quarters of them in some districts backed the localist or “resistance” camp, according to organizers.’Era of change’The democrats are hoping to secure a majority in the city’s 70-seat legislature for the first time, riding a wave of anti-Beijing sentiment.”I hope that the new generation can respond to the angry roar of the times and resist in the Legislative Council with new methods and ideologies,” said incumbent democratic lawmaker Helena Wong, 61, who was muscled out of contention in the primaries.Veteran democrats and assembly members like James To, Lam Cheuk-ting, Gary Fan and Alvin Yeung performed poorly, with their moderate call for democracy no longer appealing to young voters.”I don’t trust the traditional democrats anymore. They failed to bring any change,” said one student.Many localists are followers of Edward Leung, a former pro-independence activist and philosophy student who became a de facto leader of their movement.Leung was jailed in 2016 for six years on a riot charge.”Edward Leung has become the spiritual leader of Hong Kongers. He inspired me and many others,” said Owen Chow, 23, who campaigned over the weekend with a loud hailer rigged to a BMW convertible sports car.”We’ve entered an era of change.”The security law criminalizes what Beijing defines as terrorism, secession, foreign collusion and subversion, while authorizing Chinese security agents to enforce laws in the city.A large number of disqualifications when nominations open on Saturday could stoke fresh protests, political analysts warn.”Many argue that this is the darkest age of Hong Kong,” said Cheung.”We can only try to incrementally do something. We don’t know which path can be 100% effective. We’re not sure about anything, actually. We have to try everything.” The national security law Beijing foisted on Hong Kong has drawn red lines across many aspects of life in the city, but a vanguard of young democrats is intent on shaking up the political order and gaining mass support.Young firebrands stormed to big wins in several Hong Kong districts that held primary elections for the democracy camp on the weekend, outshining some veteran democrats.Backed by throngs of volunteers, several dozen so-called localists took to the streets to campaign for their unofficial primary poll to select the strongest pro-democracy candidates for a city legislative election in September.
With 2018 now over, Offshore Energy Today is sharing the year’s most watched videos published on our website. <span data-mce-type=”bookmark” style=”display: inline-block; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; line-height: 0;” class=”mce_SELRES_start”></span><span data-mce-type=”bookmark” style=”display: inline-block; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; line-height: 0;” class=”mce_SELRES_start”></span>
International research projects RiaSoR2 and MONITOR, which are designed to improve the reliability of wave and tidal energy converters, have joined forces to organise an ocean energy reliability workshop to be held alongside the European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC), in Italy.The OCEANERA-NET and Interreg Atlantic Area funded projects are collaborating to share learnings with the aim of supporting the progression of wave and tidal energy.The workshop will be held on 3 September 2019, from 15:30-19:00 at the Renaissance Hotel Mediterraneo in Napoli.Ocean energy developers and other interested stakeholders are invited to attend.Registration is free. To book your space email email@example.com. Invitation and invite and be downloaded here – MONITOR RiaSoR2 Reliability workshop Invitation.The workshop will include the following:Monitoring and reliability of wave energy converters (WECs)• Monitoring guidelines• Quantification of load uncertainties in the design process of a WEC• Reliability assessments• Monitoring system• Training packageMulti-model investigation of tidal energy converter (TEC) reliability• Computer modelling• Lab modelling• At sea testing, including case studies from Magallanes and Sabella.Michael Togneri, MONITOR lead partner said:“Working in collaboration to bring these two reliability focused projects together, provides an excellent opportunity to share learnings and ultimately support the development of ocean energy technologies. We encourage interested stakeholders to attend and participate in the workshop.”Johannes Huffmeier, RiaSoR2 lead partner, explained:“RiaSoR2 is building on the success of the RiaSoR project, which developed a theoretical reliability assessment guideline for WECs and TECs. RiaSoR2 aims to enable developers to validate their findings and establish a practical, condition-based monitoring platform to prepare for future arrays, where big data handling and processing will be vital to drive down operational expenditure.“This workshop marks the end of the RiaSoR2 project and we look forward to engaging with the ocean energy industry to discuss the outputs and share the learnings.”The MONITOR project is led by Swansea University, and brings together the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC), ORE Catapult, Magallanes Renovables S.L., Région Normandie, Sabella S.A.S., Universidade do Algarve, Université Le Havre Normandie and University College Cork.The RiaSoR2 project is led by Rise Research Institutes of Sweden, and brings together Waves4Power, Synective Labs, Ocean Harvesting, K2 Management, EMEC, ORE Catapult and Alkit Communications.
Share 44 Views no discussions Tweet Share Share LifestyleRelationships Is eating ‘too sexy’ sexual harassment? New reason to be paranoid about your office lunch. by: – October 10, 2011 Sharing is caring! Have you ever wondered what goes on in offices all across Finland? You will after you watch this commercial, sponsored by the Association of Finnish Lawyers. In it a woman sits innocently enough at her desk and eats a popsicle. Of course the way she eats it, moaning, fondling it with her tongue, practically choking on it, implies a lot more experience. “Is this sexual harassment?” the commercial asks at the end of her pop performance, savored by an audience of her co-workers.In my opinion, the only thing violated is the ice pop. But according to the AFL, just eating your lunch in a way that arouses your fellow co-workers, raises the question of harassment. The association claims their intent is to spark debate in the murky waters of workplace legalities. “There’s been a new generation of confusion in this area,” Jay Zweig, an employment lawyer told Forbes Woman. “Twenty years ago, it was, ‘Sleep with me if you want the promotion.’ Now most sexual harassment claims have to do with a hostile work environment, someone saying, ‘This person is bothering me. I can’t do my work. I’m distracted and uncomfortable.’”But can either sex be blamed for absent-mindedly turning on their co-workers? A lot of office-types have complaints about the way their co-workers eat, especially now that most of us eat at least one of our three daily meals at our desks, but ‘too sexily’ isn’t one of them. It’s not clear what intention the women in commercial had besides pleasuring her dessert, but if it was some deranged psycho-sexual tactic to intimidate her co-workers, she’s probably loony enough to do several other, far less ambiguous, acts to get attention. That leads me to wonder about a more plausible scenario: is the commercial questioning whether she’s being sexually harassed by her onlookers? Could she accuse a gaping co-worker of sexual harassment, if a string of drool dribbles down his chin? His defense— “she eats like she’s having sex, your honor”—would only dig his own harassment hole deeper. Can’t a woman savor her lunch without being objectified? You’d never accuse a guy moaning over a cheesesteak of the same offense.I can’t tell if the commercial is more sexist for imagining a scenario where any woman would eat like this outside of a “Porky’s” movie or for raising the question as if it were something that really needed to be tackled by legal experts.I’ve certainly enjoyed a dessert enough to let out an embarrassing whimper of delight but there’s no way anyone took it as a turn on. If anything, that smelly tuna sandwich is more likely to send your co-workers to HR than any odorless popsicle stick. That’s the only kind of office lunch that requires legal counsel. by Piper Weiss, Shine Staff
Yesterday I talked about attending local high school and college football games. If you do not enjoy football, there are many other fall sports going on that would certainly enjoy your attendance. Most schools now have boys tennis, boys and girls cross country, boys and girls soccer, volleyball, and girls golf. You can enjoy these sports both at the middle school and high school levels.If you are a senior citizen, many schools offer a reduced ticket price for those who want to attend these activities. Since there are many schools in the local area, you can attend these without having to drive long distances like college activities require. If you enjoy golf, Batesville High School has Madison McCreary who just set the school record for low score. You can attend most golf outings free of charge.Oldenburg Academy and Batesville High School both have ranked soccer teams. Cross Country meets can be run in less than 25 minutes, and again, BHS and OA have excellent teams to follow. BHS football has not lost a regular season game in two seasons, and Milan’s football team is off a good start. BHS boys tennis is hoping to win another sectional title.Take your pick and enjoy a sport!